Blogging is very self-indulgent. One gets to think out loud about one's interests, and share the musings with interested readers---who, with their comments, give the blogger new insight into old passions.
I've been thinking a great deal this year about the graceful old Federal houses of New England---those first flowerings of design from our young country, that so well reflect the ideals, political and social, of the founders, and that for so long defined the look of most New England towns. In particular, I determined to write about a group of country houses, those with the newly fashionable oval rooms in particular, built around Boston between 1790 and 1820. I don't flatter myself that I have new insight to add to the impressive body of scholarship published about these houses over the last hundred years, but hope that you enjoy my light summaries.
What brings me back to the subject of oval rooms today is a group of late 19th century photographs passed on by a friend---but more about those in a moment...
|McIntyre's drawing for the entrance front of the Vale, which looks backwards to the Palladian tradition of Somerset House, more than to the newly fashionable neo-classicism that characterized the Federal style (from Old Time New England, Spring 1952)|
|McIntyre's drawing of the first floor plan (from Old Time New England, Spring 1952|
'The Vale', in Waltham, Massachusetts was designed in the 1790's by the great carver-architect of Salem, Samuel McIntyre, for merchant prince Theodore Lyman. Lyman began development of his estate in 1793, laying out a park and garden in the informal English style of Capability Brown, with a stream dammed to form an ornamental lake, and glasshouses against a brick wall, in which Camellias and other exotics were grown.
|The entrance front in the mid-19th century, showing McIntyre's completed design. The Greek Revival entrance portico is an early 19th century addition|
The house designed by McIntyre, completed in 1798, was based on designs in English builder's pattern books, but executed in wood, the plentiful building material of New England, rather than the stone of Old England. With his typical mastery, McIntyre translated details like quoins and pilasters, meant to be stone, to wood with high effect, yet the scale (the main block was only fifty feet wide), unlike its English prototypes, was domestic, not palatial.
|The Ballroom as it appeared in the early 20th century.|
The composition was Palladian, with a separate kitchen wing connected by a hypen, balanced a few years later by a ballroom wing. The center hall led directly to an oval room centered on the garden front facing the glasshouses, referred to by the family as the 'Bow Parlor'.
|The Bow Parlor, as it appears today. The white painted Hepplewhite chairs are part of the original Lyman furnishings|
Lyman lived in great style in his new house. After his death, it passed to his son, and in turn his grandson, Arthur Lyman, treasurer of the Lowell textile mills. What had been one of the grand houses of the area at the beginning of the century was by now dated and old fashioned, and not suited to the more expansive scale of living made possible by industrial age wealth. Fond of the old house, Arthur Lyman hired the local firm of Hartwell & Richardson (no relation to H.H. Richardson, about whom more in a minute) to enlarge and remodel the family homestead in 1882.
|The new plan, with modern interior plumbing, but the outside privy still survives. The staircase has moved to left of Bow Parlor|
Their first design was for a complete transformation of the house, and was not executed. Evidence is strong that Arthur Lyman had second thoughts about how drastically he wished to alter the old family homestead, and the final design, completed in 1883 sought to save some of the character of McIntyre's design, even to the extent of re-using the second floor pilasters by McIntyre to frame the new two story bays that pushed out from the entrance front. Although respectful by the standards of the time, in fact McIntyre's elegant composition was irrevocably altered and subsumed by the new house. Inside, mantels were replaced, high wainscots installed, yet the Bow Parlor and the Ballroom both survived untouched, as artifacts of the family's past splendors.
|The rejected proposal for renovation (American Architect & Building News)|
|Hartwell & Richardson's accepted design for the renovation (American Architect & Building News)|
|Interior details in the 'Colonial' style for the new staircase and parlor (American Architect & Building News)|
|Mr. Lyman writes to American Architect explaining his desire to preserve as much as possible of the old house|
Please click on pictures to enlarge
|The Bow Parlor. The French style furniture suite is original to the house|
|Two views of the new family living room in the location of the old kitchen. The tiles surrounding the fireplace are by William deMorgan|
|The ballroom looking toward the cross hall|
|The cross hall looking from the new staircase toward the ballroom|
|The second floor landing|
|The Drawing Room. Two of the White Hepplewhite chairs can be seen|
|The cross hall toward family living room|
|Dressing room, opening to entrance portico roof|
|Two rooms in the nursery suite. Ever thrifty, the Lymans retained the 1850's ingrain carpeting.|
|The bedroom above the Bow Parlor|
|Two views of the master bedroom.|
|A present day view of the master bedroom, after being stripped of its Victorian decorations in the early 20th century (photo uncredited from Historic New England Website.|
|Present day view of the garden front. The central bay of the Bow Parlor remains as McIntyre designed it.|
Before we end today's lesson, it is worth noting that Arthur Lyman's sister, Lydia, married Robert Treat Paine, a housing reformer descended from a signer of the Declaration of Independence. They lived across the street, on property given them by her father. When they remodeled the existing house on that property, they hired the other Richardson, H.H. himself, as their architect, and their naturally landscaped grounds were a collaboration with Frederick Law Olmstead. For that house, click HERE
For previous Dilettante posts about lost Federal country estates in the Boston area, please click HERE, HERE, and HERE.
For more about The Vale, click HERE for the Historic New England website